Renal colic is a pain in the flank (loin) caused by a stone in the kidney or ureter, sometimes associated with blood in the urine (Gross or microscopic haematuria). Treatment should include analgesia (pain killers) and further stone management will depend on the location of the stone. Your doctor will discuss this with you in detail.

It is the presence of blood in the urine, either during a urine test (microscopic haematuria) or you can see it when you pass urine (red urine: gross haematuria). This is a serious symptom that needs to be investigated urgently and thoroughly by a urologist. It can be caused by serious conditions such as cancers of the bladder, kidney and prostate. It can also be caused by urinary infections or urinary stones (kidney stones). Please ask your doctor to refer you for a urology opinion.

This is a narrow area in the urethra (urination tube) that cases difficulty in passing urine. It can be caused by infection or trauma. The treatment is by widening of the narrow area using a telescope (optical urethrotomy), or by reconstructive surgery.

A swelling in the scrotum (sac) can be related to the presence of fluid (hydrocele, epididymal cyst), hernia, dilated blood vessels of the testis (varicocele), infection and trauma of the testis. However, a lump in the testis is a condition that needs urgent medical attention to rule out testicular cancer. Please ask your doctor to refer you to a urologist.

A circumcision could be performed if you wish to have it done for cultural or religious reasons. However it could be indicated to treat foreskin problems such as: tight foreskin (phimosis) and recurrent foreskin infections.